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Table 2 Investigated South American Cichlids (Cichlinae). n, number of analyzed animals; cr, chromosomes; st/a, subtelocentric/acrocentric; m/sm, meta/submetacentric.

From: Chromosome differentiation patterns during cichlid fish evolution

Tribes and species Origin n Karyotypic formulae 2n rDNA sites
Cichlini      
Cichla temensis Tocantins river, Tucuruí, TO, Brazil 17 48st/a 48  
Cichla orinocensis Orinoco river, Caicara, Venezuela 01 48st/a 48  
Cichla piquiti Araguaia river, São Felix do Araguaia, MT, Brazil 04 48st/a 48  
Cichla kelberi Araguaia river, São Félix do Araguaia, MT, Brazil; Tietê river, Bariri, SP, Brazil 12 48st/a 48 2cr, st/a
Retroculini      
Retroculus lapidifer Araguaia river, Barra do Garças, MT, Brazil 02 48st/a 48 2cr, st/a
Astronotini      
Astronotus ocellatus Tietê river, Barra Bonita, SP, Brazil 09 12m/sm+36st/a 48 2cr, m/sm
Chaetobranchini      
Chaetobranchus flavescens Araguaia river, São Félix do Araguaia, MT, Brazil 01 6m/sm+42st/a 48 2cr, m/sm
Geophagini      
Apistogramma borellii Comprida lagoon, Aquidauana, MS, Brazil 05 16m/sm+30st/a 46  
Biotodoma cupido Araguaia river, Barra do Garças, MT, Brazil Araguaia river, São Félix Araguaia, MT, Brazil 07 4m/sm+44st/a 48 2cr, m/sm
Crenicichla lepidota Comprida Lagoon, Aquidauana, MS, Brazil 05 6m/sm+42st/a 48 2cr, m/sm
Crenicichla strigata Araguaia river, Barra do Garças and São Félix do Araguaia, MT, Brazil 03 6m/sm+42st/a 48  
Crenicichla britskii Olaria stream, Poloni, SP, Brazil 01 6m/sm+42st/a 48  
Crenicichla aff britskii Olaria stream, Poloni, SP, Brazil 01 6m/sm+42st/a 48  
Crenicichla aff haroldoi Olaria stream, Poloni, SP, Brazil 01 6m/sm+42st/a 48  
Geophagus brasiliensis Olaria stream, Poloni, SP, Brazil Araquá stream, Botucatu, SP, Brazil Bonito river, Barra Bonita, SP, Brazil Paraitinguinha river, Salesópolis, SP, Brazil 07 2m/sm+46st/a 48  
Geophagus proximus Araguaia river, Barra do Garças, MT, Brazil 04 4m/sm+44st/a 48  
Geophagus cf proximus Tietê river, Buritama; Engenheiro Taveira river, Araçatuba (SP, Brazil) 04 4m/sm+44st/a 48  
Geophagus surinamensis Orinoco river, Caicara, Venezuela 03 4m/sm+44st/a 48  
Satanoperca jurupari Araguaia river, Barra do Garças, MT, Brazil Araguaia river, São Félix do Araguaia, MT, Brazil 16 4m/sm+44st/a 48 2cm, st/a
Cichlasomatini      
Aequidens plagiozonatus Comprida lagoon, Aquidauana, MS, Brazil 09 12m/sm+36st/a 48  
Aequidens tetramerus Araguaia river, Barra do Garças, MT, Brazil Araguaia river, São Félix do Araguaia, MT, Brazil 09 12m/sm+36st/a 48 2cr, st/a
Cichlasoma facetum Campo Novo stream, Bauru; Paraitinguinha river, Salesópolis (SP, Brazil) 06 6m/sm+42st/a 48  
Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum Petshop, Botucatu, SP, Brazil 13 8m/sm+40st/a 48  
Cichlasoma paranaense Carrapato stream, Penápolis, SP, Brazil Batata stream, Miracatú, SP, Brazil Faú stream, Miracatú, SP, Brazil 08 6m/sm+42st/a 48  
Laetacara dorsigera Bahia river, Pracinha, PR, Brazil 01 4m/sm+40st/a 44 2cr, st/a
Heroini      
Heros efasciatus Araguaia river, Barra do Garças and São Félix Araguaia,(MT, Brazil) 03 8m/sm+40st/a 48 2cr, st/a
Mesonauta festivus Araguaia river, Barra do Garças and São Félix Araguaia (MT, Brazil) 10 14m/sm+34st/a 48 6cr
Parachromis managuensis Petshop, Botucatu, SP, Brazil 01 6m/sm+42st/a 48 2cr, m/sm
Pterophyllum scalare Petshop, Botucatu, SP, Brazil 04 6m/sm+42st/a 48 2cr, m/sm
Symphysodon aequifasciatus Petshop, Botucatu, SP, Brazil 02 46m/sm+4st/a+10micro 60